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9 Jul 2019

Components and Design of a Septic Tank

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If you are like most people, you know very little about your septic tank system. This is understandable. In urban and suburban areas there are sewers to carry household waste to municipal wastewater treatment facilities. In more rual areas, however, septic tank systems provide the functions of both sewers and treatment facilities. All household waste is disposed of through the septic system.  The proper operation of the septic system is essential to public and private health, to propery values, and to the environment.  To see if you know enough about septic systems, answer the following questions. IF you cannot answer all the questions, your septic system could become a huge aggravation, public nuisance, health hazard and finacial burden.

  • Do you know what a septic tank is and how it works?
  • Do you know what causes septic systems to fail?
  • Do you know what it cost to replace a failed septic system?
  • Do you know how to keep a septic system from failing?
  • Do you know that failed and failing septic systems contribute to pollution?

Design of Septic Tank

The capacity of septic tank depends on number of users and interval of sludge removal. Normally sludge should be removed every 2 years. The liquid capacity of tank is taken as 130 liters to 70 liters per head. For small number of users 130ltr per head is taken.

A septic tank is usually provided with brick wall in which cement mortar [not less than 20cm (9 inch)] thick and the foundation floor is of cement concrete 1:2:4. Both inside and outside faces of the wall and top of the floor are plastered with minimum thickness of 12mm (one-half inch) thick cement mortar 1:3 mix.

All inside corners of septic tank are rounded. Water proofing agent such as Impermo, Cem-seal or Accoproof etc. is added to the mortar at the rate of 2% of the cement weight. Water proofing agent is to be added in similar proportion in to the concrete also for making floor of the tank.

For proper convenience in collection and removal of the sludge, the floor of septic tank is given a slope of 1:10 to 1:20 towards the inlet side. Which means that floor of the outlet side will be on the higher elevation than the floor at inlet side.

Dimensions of Septic Tank Components

i) Length, Width and Depth of Septic Tank

Width = 750mm(min)

Length = 2 to 4 times width

Depth = 1000 to 1300mm. (min below water level) + 300 to 450mm free board

Maximum depth = 1800mm + 450 mm free board

Capacity = 1 cubic meter (10 cubic feet) minimum

ii) Detention period

Detention period of 24hrs (mostly) considered in septic tank design. The rate of flow of effluent must be equal to the rate of flow of influent.

iii) Inlet and outlet pipes

An elbow or T pipe of 100mm diameter is submerged to a depth of 250-600mm below the liquid level. For outlet pipe an elbow or T type of 100mm diameter pipe is submerged to a depth of 200-500mm below the liquid level. Pipes may be of stone ware or asbestos.

iv) Baffle Walls of Septic Tank

For small tanks, RCC hanging type scum baffle walls are provided in septic tanks. Baffle walls are provided near the inlet. It is optional near the outlet.

The inlet baffle wall is placed at a distance of L/5 from the wall, where L is the length of the wall. The baffle wall is generally extended 150mm above to scum level and 400-700mm below it.

Scum being light, generally floats at the water level in the tank. Thickness of the wall varies from 50mm to 100mm. for large tanks lower portion are having holes for flow of sludge.

v) Roofing Slab of Septic Tank

The top of the septic tank is covered with a RCC slab of thickness of 75-100mm depending upon the size of the tank. Circular manholes of 500mm clear diameter are provided for inspection and desludging. In case of rectangular opening clear size is kept as 600X450mm.

vi) Ventilation Pipe

For outlet of foul gases and ventilation purpose cast iron or asbestos pipe of 50-100mm diameter is provided which should extend 2m (min) above ground level. Top of the ventilation pipe is provided with a mosquito proof wire mess or cowl.

Typical Structural Details of a Septic Tank

Fig: Sectional plan ZZ shoes the typical layout of the septic tank. Section XX shows the Cross-Sectional detail of septic tank.

Example – Design of Septic Tank for 20 Users

Liquid capacity of the tank:

@120lts per user = 0.12 X 20 =2.4cum

Take liquid depth as 1.3meter.

Therefore Floor area of the tank = 24/1.3 = 1.85m2

Taking length as 2.5times the breath

L X B=1.85

2.5B X B = 1.85

B = Sqrt(1.85/2.5) = 0.86 say 0.9m

Therefore, the dimension of the tank is 22.5 X 0.9m

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